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Mauricepinge, <>, Thursday - Jun 15, 2017 - 1:52 AM PST
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CarlosRaw, <>, Wednesday - Jun 14, 2017 - 12:07 PM PST
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?Critical Reading of An Essay's Argument: Some logicians call it "critical reading." Others call it "close reading," or "active reading," or a host of other terms. All these labels refer to the same general approach. This online site attempts to define extra clearly what it is, and to outline a strategy for it. I expect like readings from the class, so it behooves students to give this site itself a close reading. Print out a copy if you decide to want just one for reference. Educated adults exist inside of a delusional state, thinking we can learn. Inside of the most elementary feeling, we can. After all, we've made it up to this point on the sentence and understand it all, right? And what about all those hundreds of books we browse before now? These statements are only partly true; I am below to tell you the opposite. Odds are, a number of us can't learn, at least not in addition as we would like. Too a great many college students are capable of only some variations of reading, which painful lack reveals itself when they look over a difficult textual content and must talk critically about it. Mortimer Adler speaks of an knowledge even while teaching an honors course that illustrates the problem perfectly: What I am going to report happened inside a class in which we have been reading Thomas Aquinas's treatise relating to the passions, but the same thing has happened in countless other courses with so many different sorts of material. I asked a student what St. Thomas had to say about the order on the passions. He rather correctly told me that love, according to St. Thomas, is the to start with of all passions which the opposite emotions, which he named accurately, follow in the certain order. Then I asked him what that meant [and how St. Thomas arrived at that sequence]. The student looked startled. Had he not answered the question correctly? I told him he had, but repeated my request for an explanation. He had told me what St. Thomas explained. Now I wanted to know what St. Thomas meant. The student tried, but all he could do was to repeat, in slightly altered order, his original answer. It soon became obvious that he did not know what he was talking about, even though he would have made a useful score of any examination that went no further than my original question or questions of the similar sort. ( How to Look at a Book: The Art of Obtaining a Liberal Education 36) It was clear from context that the student over had study the entire job, and also the student clearly understood the summary of Saint Thomas's argument. However, he did not understand just about the most important part: how Saint Thomas reached that summary. He grasped the external qualities on the treatise, but he did not comprehend its internal anatomy of ideas. Though intelligent and possessing a keen memory, the student had learned to examine within a certain way that was only useful for extracting help and advice. He had not learned how to look over beyond that amount. He had not practiced reading within a way that allowed him to grapple substantively using an idea. Thus he could not give any useful commentary of his individual, only summary. The act of reading to extract facts and reading critically are vastly different. The present educational procedure in American primary schools (and a large number of colleges) heavily emphasizes the initially type of reading and de-emphasizes the latter. In a wide range of ways, this tendency makes perception. Reading to extract information and facts allows for a student to absorb the raw materials of factual detail as swiftly as probable. It is known as a type of reading we all must engage in frequently. However, every single type of reading calls for different mental habits. If we do not learn to adjust from a particular type of reading to another when necessary, we cripple our intellectual abilities to read through critically. If we cannot read through critically, we cannot get to the ultimate goal of reading syntopically or synoptically* (which we will discuss later with this webpage). But let's not get ahead of ourselves. What are the differences involving (1) reading to extract information and facts and (two) reading critically? Why are the differences relating to the two skills so important? They have different goals. When students browse through to extract advice, usually they seek facts and presume the source is accurate. No argument is required. For the other hand, when students learn critically, they try to determine the good quality in the argument. The reader must be open-minded and skeptical all at once, constantly adjusting the degree of personal belief in relation to the premium on the essay's arguments. They require different variations of discipline. If students study for that purpose of learning raw knowledge, essentially the most efficient way to learn is repetition. For instance, in grade-school, when youngsters memorize the multiplication and division tables, they check out and recite them over and over again. To the other hand, if students look over critically, probably the most effective technique may be to break the essay up into sensible subdivisions and analyze every single section's argument, to restate the argument in other words, and then to expand upon or question the findings. They require different varieties of mental activity. If a student reads to gain knowledge, a certain degree of absorption, memorization and passivity is necessary. (We can't memorize the multiplication charts effectively if we waste time questioning whether eight times three really does equal twenty-four.) If a student is engaged in reading critically, however, that student must be active, active, active! He or she must be prepared to preread the essay, then look over it closely for content, and reread it if it isn't clear how the author reached the summary to the argument. The critical reader must take the time to consider the argument from numerous angles such as sensible, rhetorical, historical, ethical, social, and personal perspectives. In short, critical readings would mean actually thinking about the subject, moving beyond what the original essay concluded to the point of how the author reached that summary as well as degree to which that summary is accurate. They formulate different outcomes. Passive reading to absorb details can set up a student who (if not precisely well-read) has browse through a ideal a large number of books. It good results in someone who has, on the closet for the mind, a staggering amount of facts to call to memory at any moment. It creates what more and more call "book-smarts." However, critical reading involves original, progressive thinking. It creates a person who intentionally and habitually reads with the mental habit of reflection, intellectual honesty, perceptivity to the textual content, subtlety in thought, and originality in insight. Every method of reading has its area, but critical reading is too often supplanted by reading for particulars. They differ on the degree of understanding they require. Reading for related information is the increased fundamental, and thus a bit more fundamental, from the two reading skills. If an individual cannot make out the meaning of individual words, it is pointless to try and evaluate their importance. However, reading critically is the additional sophisticated of your two, given that only critical reading equates with comprehensive understanding . To illustrate the difference, imagine the following situation. If a worker ended up watching the monitors in a nuclear power plant, it would take tiny brainpower to "read" the dials and determine that "The Geiger counter reads 150 rads." That may be an individual type of understanding, the understanding of fact. The worker has browse every word on that gauge, and can repeat it word for word. A far considerably more important type of understanding is the ability to discern what that statement usually means to the reader in practical terms, i.e. what the implications are. Does it mean the nuclear power plant is functioning inside of normal parameters? That it is leaking toxic waste? That the villagers below the plant are all going to die basically because of cancerous tumors? That the reactor vents should be shut? This type of understanding, the ability to take the statement, think through the implications, and put the fact into a meaningful context for oneself and one's community, is central to critical reading. Ultimately, what we want is the conscious control of our reading skills, so we can move back again and forth amidst the varied sorts of reading. How do we do that? The techniques will vary from reader to reader, but within a surefire way to attain critical reading and true understanding of the textual content is to be systematic and thorough. The following outline comprises 5 general stages of reading. You should follow this with every assigned textual content. (Every label around the outline is anchored into a fuller description. It's possible to go directly to the term by clicking on it, or leisurely scroll down to look at each individual in turn). I. Pre-Reading (Examining the textual content and preparing to browse through it effectively) II. Interpretive Reading (Understanding what the author argues, what the author concludes, and exactly how he or she reached that summary) III. Critical Reading (Questioning, examining, and expanding upon what the author says with your very own arguments) IV. Syntopic or Synoptic Reading (Putting the author's argument in the larger context by considering what several others have written or argued bout the same subject) V. Post-Reading (Ensuring you won't forget your new insights) I know what your initial response is: "Five stages! For just about every essay? Isn't that excessive?" Not in any way. It is necessary those that would like to truly understand an essay's argument, rather than merely extract a summary. "But that will take hours!" Indeed, it may at initially. But keep in mind three important factors: (1) The reward doesn't come from finishing the essay initial or speed-reading through the textual content in breath-taking time. The reward comes from actually understanding new material, from learning and thinking. Student A (Johnny) zips through an assigned reading in thirty minutes, but after two days (or even two hours), he can't remember what he study when he arrives in class. That zippy fellow wasted thirty minutes of his life. He would most likely too have spent that time cleaning his toenails. In contrast, Student B (Janie) spends an extra half-hour with the textual content, re-reads it, and actually sets aside time to systematically explore it. She has a far greater chance of retaining the material, and considerably better opportunity for some profound thinking to germinate in her skull. (two) Many of these reading habits actually save readers time and mental effort. Scores of students naively pick up a difficult textual content, plunge into it without preparation, and discover themselves reading the same paragraph 5 times trying to understand it. If they had taken 5 minutes of time for Pre-Reading (Stage A single), and systematically looked for your overall structure within the essay with Interpretive Reading (Stage Two), they may well be able to puzzle out that tricky paragraph the first of all time rather than the fifth. A great many of these stages, mainly Pre-Reading and Post-Reading, only take four or 5 minutes to do. (3) The plan of critical reading gets faster the a little more you do it. Once the habit becomes ingrained, critical readers do not slavishly have to have to follow the 5 stages I've outlined previously mentioned. They finish up the Post-reading Tasks (Stage 5) even when however working on Synoptic Reading (Stage Four). They simultaneously focus on Stage Three and Two. They leave out parts of Stage One particular considering they realize it won't be useful for this particular reading. They move again and forth amongst stages with the ease of the god mainly because they have mastered the methodology. That state will happen for you too, but first of all you must focus on every individual stage, sequentially. Let's cover every stage, a single by 1, in outline format. You could potentially save yourself time by taking 5 to ten minutes to skim and "pre-read" the textual content before you examine the whole essay through. It will give you some context to the argument, which can help you understand difficult passages and get a general feeling of where the essay ends up before you dig into a reading with the whole perform. A. Preliminary Examination Size . How extensive is the essay? You may hope to budget enough time to scan it fully without interruption. If it is unusually prolonged, you could would like to schedule a short break mid-way through the composing to avoid receiving "burnt out" and not finishing. Title . Examine the title. Different titles make us react in different ways. What rhetorical expectations does it generate? What expectations in terms for the essay's content? Often times, you possibly can determine the author's focus for the subject in advance by hunting on the label he gives. It are also able to offer you rhetorical hints on how the author is positioning readers to react to his argument. For instance, labeling an essay "Politics of Expansion inside Western Hemisphere" has a different effect from labeling an essay, "Nazi Politics in America." The author from the initially title wants to put a positive spin over the subject-matter, but the second author wants to put the subject-matter in the negative historical context. Author : See if the book accommodates important information about the author. If you happen to are trying to judge the value of his ideas, it makes feeling to see what (if any) expertise the author might possibly have in such a area, and what sort of perspective the writer would probably have. Beginning and Ending . To get a perception of where the essay goes, browse the earliest number of paragraphs and therefore the last several paragraphs before you go through the whole essay. Doing that isn't cheating. If the argument serves as a complicated, this knowledge can help you keep your bearings and avoid gaining lost mid-way. You will know in advance where you will close up, which gives you a greater chance to determine how the author arrives at that summary. The human mind has an easier time dealing with material if it can classify it. As you skim, determine the following as prime you may: Subject Matter . What does the general subject matter appear to be? Make a brief but exact definition of your subject matter, these as "politics--ancient Greece" or "environmental issues--American." As you look over the essay, double-check to make sure it is nonetheless talking about that subject-matter. Perhaps what initially seemed like the main issue shouldn't be really the point. If part in the essay talks about one particular subject, and later discusses something different, you must determine what the larger category tends to be that encompasses both equally subjects. Kind of Essay : Skim through the essay easily, glancing at every single webpage. What kind of essay is it? Is its argument about factuality? About an analysis of history? Is it a political treatise? A scientific discourse? An argument about the ethics of the certain action? C. Skimming for Structural Analysis: "Seeing the Skeleton" Overt Subdivisions . As you skim, seem for sub-divisions clearly marked in just just about every chapter or essay. Identify areas with extra room relating to lines or paragraphs, which may indicate a change in subject matter. Outline . As you browse through, scratch out an outline for the major parts on the essay. Relations . In the event you have a entire outline belonging to the major parts from the essay, think about the relation of every major part to the others. (Mortimer Adler calls this "seeing the skeleton.") What is the effect of presenting the parts in that order? Was that order necessary? Why? Is it organized chronologically? From least important to most important? Does it use an individual premise as being the foundation of later arguments and establish every single argument afterward about the premise that came before? The Essential Problem . What is the author's point? Define the problem the author is trying to resolve inside a one sentence. At any time you can't define it inside of a solitary sentence, you probably don't have a clear idea of what the essay's purpose is. Ask Questions About the Essay Before Reading It . As soon as you determine what the author is trying to do, make a list of questions that will help you spot important bits. For instance, after reading the opening and closing of an essay about poverty, you might just think. "That's an odd summary. How does the author get to the summary that 4% poverty is necessary for economic health? Why that percentage? How did the author deal with the ethics of intentionally leaving people poor? Why did the author avoid talking about attitudes toward the poor until so late inside of the essay?" Be able to write questions down as they occur to you, and as soon as you have concluded with the essay, see should you can come up using an answer to them. Doing this sort of Pre-Reading only takes 5 or ten minutes, and it prepares you to definitely go through the entire essay with a whole lot greater odds of understanding it over the first of all shot, letting you focus noticeably a great deal more energy on making connections in between just about every section. Additionally, it prepares your mind to begin thinking about the main issues before they appear in just the textual content. Then you are able to move below to Stage II: Interpretive Reading. II. Interpretive Reading You've skimmed through the essay briefly to get the gist of it. Now, Interpretive Reading requires you to definitely learn through the whole essay slowly and carefully, researching at every one sentence, every one word. Don't skim now! You had your chance for that during Pre-Reading. In practical use, Interpretive Reading can occasionally be done within the same time as Stage III (Critical Reading). However, the two are distinct in their purposes. Interpretive Reading occurs when we make sure we really understand the author's ideas. Too a good number of students agree or disagree by having an author's summary without really understanding how the summary was reached. It is pointless to agree or disagree by having an idea we don't understand. With the words of Wayne Booth, readers must "understand" the argument (or see how the argument is effective) before they can "overstand" it (take a meaningful position concerning the merits or flaws with the summary). A. Search with the Important Words Recurring Words . Do words appear repeatedly throughout the essay? They may be important to understanding it. Craft them down with the margins or in a very notebook. Mortimer Adler wrote: "An essay is all a blur for students who treat everything they browse as equally important. That usually will mean that everything is equally unimportant" (219). To avoid that bland sameness, identify the terms that look pertinent to the argument as a whole. Unknown Words . Are there words you do not know? Appear them up inside of the dictionary. All of these. (It's superior to your vocabulary, and you can't really understand what the author is saying once you don't know what the words about the site mean.) If you happen to are reading a pre-20th century textual content, try the Oxford English Dictionary to uncover potential outdated meanings. One particular student in my class was confused by an essay for hours, but as soon as she bothered to appearance up the word prelapsarian . the whole essay suddenly made feeling, as being the idea of prelapsarian paradise was central to the author's argument about religious belief in America. Oddly Utilised Words . In many instances, an author will utilize the word inside of a way that implies a special perception or meaning. For instance, John Locke and Thomas Jefferson make a distinction relating to "Natural Rights" and "Civil Rights." Karl Marx signifies something relatively specified by "Proletariat." As you perception these a pattern, make a note. Try to interpret how the author is making use of the words differently than most people do or how you use it. Identify Ambiguous Words . Often, confusion can result in the event the author takes advantage of the word in a single feeling, but the reader interprets the word in another feeling. For instance, "Save soap and waste paper." Is the word waste functioning as an adjective describing paper? Or is it a verb telling the reader what to do with paper? Those that see something confusing, seem for words with many meanings. Likewise, abstract or vague words can become confusing. Try substituting synonyms and see any time you can make perception in the passage that way. B. Paraphrase and Summarize Paraphrase . Ever study through a difficult passage seven times within a row? Realize that your eyes slide over the words, but on the bottom belonging to the paragraph you can't remember an individual bit of what you examine? To avoid this tragedy, make a habit of repeating passages into your have words. Readers do not intellectually possess the subject-matter until they allow it to be their have by translating it into their possess, familiar terminology. Do it aloud, or craft brief paraphrases of hard passages with the margin. Summarize . If you decide to are truly reading critically, in the conclude of each and every paragraph you should be able to give a one-sentence summary of what that paragraph mentioned. You may also make a two or three word summary in the top of every couple of webpages, then a longer two- or three- sentence summary for the close with the reading. C. Locate and Identify the Parts You do not Understand. Mark Confusing Sections . A lot of students look at through a tough essay all the way through. When it is entire, they are confused, however they are unable to indicate what confused them. As you scan, keep note of whether or not you're understanding the material. As soon as you realize you may be lost, make a note on the margin or jot down a question-mark so you're able to try to remedy your confusion in the exact moment you start out finding confused. Reread Confusing Sections . Typically, rereading the passage after some thought is all it takes to make a confusing passage clear. Take the time to slowly re-read it. Try rewriting the passage with your personal words once alot more. Talk it over with other Readers : Ask other students who have learn the passage to explain it to you. In case you are both of those confused, talking about it may be all you will want to break the mental barrier. Sleep on it : Generally putting the essay aside with the working day and returning to it fresh inside the morning is definitely a reputable way to cure confusion. It gives your subconscious mind a chance to chew to the problem. III. Critical Reading If we have completed interpretive reading successfully, and we fully understand every tidbit on the author's argument, we can now do a fair and honest job of critical reading (at last!). It is important, however, that the reader fully understands how the author reached his summary before determining whether or not the reader agrees. It can be important not to fall into the typical misconception that critical reading is "doubting everything you browse." As our strong friend Mortimer J. Adler again reminds us: we must understand and then assess the discussion, and there's no reason we must discover fault in every argument: You must be able to say, with reasonable certainty, "I understand," before you can actually say any one particular in the following things: "I agree," or "I disagree," or "I suspend judgement." I hope you haven't made the error of supposing that to criticize is always to disagree [and to be completely skeptical]. That is certainly an unfortunate, popular misconception. To agree is just as significantly an exercise of critical judgement on your part as to disagree. To agree without understanding is inane. To disagree without understanding is impudent. --"The Etiquette of Talking Back again." How to Scan a Book (web page 241) Let us clear up that misconception. Critical reading is absolutely not simply the act of doubting everything we read through. Certainly, healthy amount of skepticism is undoubtedly an important part of intellectual rigor, and it is higher than naïve acceptance of every printed statement. Nevertheless, critical reading is greater than paranoid doubt, or trying to "slam" every essay the reader finds. Critical reading is different than skeptical reading. Critical reading is the deliberate act of screening concepts, trying ideas on for size. A critical reader tries not only to think of arguments to refute what he reads, he tries to think of extra arguments to guidance it. Only then does he weigh the argument carefully and come to some decision. He also tries to determine in what ways the argument may be relevant and relate those idea to his personal life. Rather than merely seeking to "trash" an argument entirely, the wise reader acknowledges that some parts of an argument are far more compelling than others, and tries to figure out why. Consider three scenarios and ask yourself which 1 illustrates essentially the most thoughtful and respectful reading: (1) You draft a letter to your local congressman, arguing for new safety laws to prevent automobile wrecks. You reveal it to the friend #1, asking him for enter. He skims through it, then returns it to and says. "I agree with you. Webpages two, six, and eight are convincing. It looks really fantastic. That you are sure to convince the governor. Send it off." (two) You exhibit it to the friend #2, asking him for enter. He reads through it for several hours, and marks up all the margins with comments like these: " Why should I trust the figures from the safety commission about the range of deaths? Why should I care about traffic safety issues? Human error will always exist. Frankly, I don't see a whole lot point in trying to obsess over the problem. You haven't convinced me, and I doubt which you ever will. The whole issue is boring." (3) You indicate it a friend #3, asking him for enter. He reads through it for an hour, then says, "The part about human lives being a little more valuable than the costs of machinery makes feeling to me. I wonder, however, about the issue of consumer choice. Shouldn't different individuals have the right to make individual decisions about their individual safety? Those that can convince me that consumers rarely make effective choices, I will agree that legislation should step in and enact new laws. Until then, I will only be partly convinced." Of course, most people would fairly quickly agree that friend #1 is the least critical. He is convinced too easily, and he doesn't appear to be doing a lot thinking about the issue. A number of students may think that friend #2 (the one particular who is questioning every fact and statistic) is probably the most critical within the readers. He is probably essentially the most difficult to convince, but that's not when you consider that he's being critical. Being hostile and suspicious of everything isn't critical thinking. Critical thinking is knowing when to be suspicious and when to be accepting. Friend #2 is asking questions within the author, nonetheless they aren't necessarily very reputable questions. He clearly cannot make mental link as to why the issue is important. Why should he care about issues of traffic safety? Egad! His very life relies upon upon it if he ever drives! He asserts that human error will always exist. True, but that doesn't mean safety is irrelevant, or that we can't take steps to reduce human error in drivers, even if we can't eliminate these errors entirely. That would be like arguing we should eliminate fire departments since fires will never be 100% preventable. Of your three responses, I would look for friend #3 to be essentially the most critical merely because he is willing to change his mind about the proposed argument. Mindlessly chanting "no no no you can't convince me" isn't any added intelligent than mindlessly asserting "I agree with everything." However, the key is the fact that reader #3 is only partially convinced. He will immediately change his mind if the writer can convince him of certain points initially, and he makes it clear what those points are. He is critical in that he has clear criteria that must be met before he is convinced, not given that he has the habit of questioning everything. You can easily be critical and open-minded with the same time. To accomplish this state, follow these suggestions: A. Ask Questions Talk Again to the Textual content . Talk again to the author. He doesn't have the last say in the subject. You do. He had his chance earlier. If you decide to have been reading critically, you must have been thinking; you have something to express in words. In case you aren't designing responses to the textual content as you learn, paragraph by paragraph, you aren't really thinking. You may be merely absorbing the textual content and falling into passive reading for particulars. Take the time to jot down responses, even if only a handful of words, as you produce: "Huh?" "Yes!" "I dunno." "Not inside case of. " "I disagree in this article on the grounds that. " You get the idea. Whenever you talk back again to the textual content, you can easily expand around the author's ideas with original ones. Ask Questions to the Textual content . The key to convert yourself from the passive reader to an active a person is painless. You must ask questions, and then you must try to answer them. Thinking can only express itself overtly in language. If I tell you, "Think about starvation," your thoughts probably consist of disconnected visuals of suffering you've seen on television. There's very very little direction implied in that command. However, if I ask, "How could we prevent starvation?" Your brain probably will commence whirring, generating lists, considering varieties of approaches to dealing with the issue. Questions by their very nature generate thinking, provided that we take the time to try and answer them. So, as you learn, ask "why did the author say that?" Or "What does this part mean?" Asking and answering questions forces you to definitely browse through actively rather than passively. It forces you to definitely think, and that's the point of critical reading. Ask Questions About Yourself . What is your attitude toward the issue? What are your pre-judgments about the issue? Does your attitude affect how receptive you could be to the author's viewpoint? What preconceptions do you have about the topic? What past experiences have you had that are pertinent to the issue? Monitor your very own emotions as you read through. Do certain sections make you actually feel pleased? Guilty? Angry? Annoyed? Smug? Saddened? Do you think the author intended to produce that effect? If not, where did that emotional response originate? Ask Questions About Context . Think about the author. Why do you think the author takes the position he or she does? Is there a personal investment inside of the matter? What larger social, economic, geographical, or political circumstances would possibly have influenced the generation of this piece of producing? Check out amongst the lines and think about the context in which the material was originally written and what which may mean today. Are the original conditions so different today that they render the argument invalid in other circumstances? Or does it hold just as true? Why? Ask Questions About Broader Implications . The author asserts that X is true. What logically follows if we accept that statement? Ideas do not exist in the vacuum; they spread outward like ripples in pond water. If an essay asserts that all life is holy, and killing any other living organism is always an absolute wrong, does that imply we should stop implementing pesticides to kill bugs? We should outlaw fly-swatters? That we should cease washing our hands with soap lest we kill innocent bacteria? That capital punishment is unethical? Euthanasia? What follows from that statement if you happen to accept it unconditionally? If we can't accept it unconditionally, what exceptions must we take into account? Seek Relevant Connections . So what? Why does it matter? Why should you care? How does the argument have personal importance to you? Does it have communal importance for those available you? How does it connect to your life now? Thirty years from now? Essays on economics have implications for people who aren't economists themselves. Arguments about education and public welfare have implications for anyone who goes to school or who pays taxes. Arguments about raising children a single way or another not only have implications for potential parents, they also affect every body who must live with the next technology of youngsters. It is the sign of the weak or lazy intellect to suggest that these kinds of material has no relevance around the individual's life. Apathy is definitely an intellectual sin, and boredom the fruit of that vice. Seek out the relevant connections, and you will see them. If the topic doesn't look important to you immediately, why does the author think it is important? B. Make your Mark, Answer Your Private Questions Make Notes on the Margin . If you underline or mark important passages, jot down quick reactions like "wow!" Or "huh?" Or "maybe." Yes, it will reduce the resale value of that textbook by ten or twenty dollars for the stop from the term, but consider that you choose to are paying thousands of dollars additional in tuition in order to extract the detail inside of it. Making notes will help you extract and remember that material even more effectively, in addition as unearth the exact passage that confused or dazzled you. Active reading implies a reaction on your part. Should you have prejudices against marking up a book (they are, after all, holy objects), utilize a notepad, or jot down some ideas on stickit notes. Or compromise and compose your notes for the inside cover, or the again with the book, rather than on every web site. Make Notes to Bring to Class . When it comes time to put in writing responses to what you have browse, you will dazzle the class with your brilliance should you take the time to jot down your profound thoughts so you don't forget them. It will also allow it to be basic to assess. Active Reading implies activity on your part. IV. Synoptic or Syntopic Reading Congratulations! At this juncture, you will be probably a a lot better reader than 90% of students, and you stand to gain considerably extra from the material you browse through. The next stage of expertise is synoptic or syntopic reading. The term is Mortimer Adler's. It usually means the student juxtaposes a single reading with other is effective or arguments within the same subject. Think about it. In case you wished to truly understand a subject, say the history within the civil war, would you pick a particular book and browse only it? Of course not. That would result inside of a restricted understanding at very best, at worst the skewed viewpoint of only a particular author. Synoptic reading occurs when an individual does a close reading of several resources, and then compares and contrasts them. The majority of from the readings with this class will serve very well for synoptic readings. Several of these address similar issues but current radically different conclusions. A. Seek Confirmation If the author's argument relies heavily on certain matters of factuality, double-check to make sure those facts are accurate. Consult a up-to-date encyclopedia, a relevant and trustworthy internet site, or other handy resource. This is very relevant in more mature performs from previous decades that may be out of date. B. Seek Disagreement If two people agree completely on everything, a person of these is redundant. One particular way of finding closer to the "truth" is through dialectic and discussion. Juxtapose the author's argument with arguments from people who disagree. Often, numerous points of look at will complement, complicate and enrich your understanding within the problem. C. Seek Synthesis Of course, disagreement merely with the sake of disagreement is pointless if all that outcomes is really a jumble of clashing ideas. It is up to you to definitely wade through discordant writings and re-harmonize them by weighing the varied arguments, incorporating them into a whole, and adding to it your private thoughts. If you should have done all of these steps, that you are a critical reader. The only item remaining is wrapping up the course of action with post-reading. Post-Reading is the stage that wraps up this very long technique. Right here, you attempt to produce a summary to all the previous do the job. As soon as you post-read, do the following things. A. Study and Double-Check: Examination the notes you took even though reading. Make sure you have answered all the questions you have raised during Pre-Reading and Critical Reading. If there are any unanswered questions, take a final crack at solving them before you established the book aside.

Douglascab, <>, Thursday - Jun 08, 2017 - 1:40 AM PST
Subject: lsvideo

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Douglascab, <>, Wednesday - Jun 07, 2017 - 12:03 PM PST
Subject: lsvideo

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Dolores, <>, Wednesday - Jun 07, 2017 - 11:03 AM PST
Subject: language


Thank you for all you do here. Awesome.

There is a Curtis photo called "Navajo Boy" and it says Che-bah-nah. I would like to know what that says.

Thank you very much.

Marthafer, <>, Wednesday - Jun 07, 2017 - 4:31 AM PST
Subject: flash games

I apologise, but, in my opinion, you are mistaken. I can defend the position.

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Subject: information

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I am interested in purchasing the legendary code talkers poster. How much are they and can they be sent in the mail ?

Caroline Hall, <>, Thursday - May 25, 2017 - 7:13 PM PST
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I am planning a trip this summer to the Navajo Nation, and the VERY BEST MAP I CAN FIND is the Lapahie map. It's too large to print from my computer, but I'd be happy to buy one. No other map even comes close as this one does to showing detail, and I would be grateful to have the map with me as my husband and I drive in this fascinating and beautiful place. Please let me know how or if you can share this map with me. Sincerely, Caroline Hall

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I purchased a few photos at a local swap meet. One of them has Henry Dodge and family written on back. One has Henry Dodge and daughters written on back. The 3rd has no name but has Fort Defiance AZ written on back and looks like it could be a young Annie Dodge photo. Would you know of anyone that could verify photos if I send you email scans of them? Thank you for your consideration.

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Jackie Galbreath, <>, Monday - Jun 29, 2015 - 7:54 AM PST
Subject: Map of the Navajo Nation

My husband and I are 86 & 97 years old, and we enjoy reading Tony Hillerman's mystery books - I read them aloud to him, and we would so like to have a good map that shows all the mesas and draws and arroyos that they speak of in the books. We are currently using a road map which is some help.

We are wondering if we can buy your map of the Navajo Nation with the listing of where land marks are, and what the cost might be.

Thank you,

Jackie Galbreath 805-441-7546

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Jeri, <>, Wednesday - May 13, 2015 - 10:05 AM PST
Subject: Introduction of self including grandparents

Hi! Im looking for a clan introduction chart which includes the grandparents. I know the basic introduction but I'm unsure of how to do the introduction of grandparents. My daughter wants to learn to add who her grandparents are (both sides) and where they are from and to also include the deceased grandparents. If you have anything such as a guide we can go by, that would be a great help! Thank you!

Jeri, <>, Wednesday - May 13, 2015 - 10:05 AM PST
Subject: Introduction of self including grandparents

Hi! Im looking for a clan introduction chart which includes the grandparents. I know the basic introduction but I'm unsure of how to do the introduction of grandparents. My daughter wants to learn to add who her grandparents are (both sides) and where they are from and to also include the deceased grandparents. If you have anything such as a guide we can go by, that would be a great help! Thank you!

Anthony L, <>, Thursday - Jun 19, 2014 - 11:41 AM PST
Subject: Opinion

I totally disagree when Dineh people say or claim that Changing Woman created the "Original" clans, or that she created the "first" clans. NOT so! Upon arrival into the White world and into the Glittering World, the "Athabaskan", NOT Navajos, Apaches, etc. but just people that spoke this dialect. Upon arrival, the first integration among these people happened, creating and starting what was to be some of the clans, most of which came from the Pueblos, that were already here in the White world. I do believe yes, a person whether it was a woman or man is not noted, but thru oral history, our people say it was a woman. There were other "Athabaskan" speaking people in the deserts of what is now Southern Arizona and part of California. These people were sent back after being told they had relatives still here to the North, picking up and adopting other clans along the way. These four clans were NOT the first clan, nor were they the "original", as claimed. THE ORIGINAL Clan is that of the language, which is "Athabaskan", that is the original clan. Then came "Apaches" which we were referred to till the late 1700's. Then Navaho's, and of course ending up with the US Government labeling us Navajos. I am Na shash ii DINE, Ta chi nii (Red Forehead People) ba chis chiin. There is a long story to this. This is more an English interpretation. When told in English our stories make no sense.

Rebecca Valette, <>, Sunday - Jun 15, 2014 - 4:18 PM PST
Subject: Navajo Names

Dear Harry Lapahie,

I found your web site on the internet, and thought you might be able to help me.

In my research on Navajo weavings, I have come across some 1925 transcriptions of Navajo names.

Would you be able to give me a transcription in modern Navajo spelling, and confirm the translations?

• Tses Pese Bega, Braided Hairs Son's Wife
• Anadochisha Ason, Blue Eyes' Wife

Many thanks for your assistance,

Rebecca Valette
Professor Emeritus, Boston College
16 Mt. Alvernia Road
Chestnut Hill, MA 02467

Joy McCabe, <>, Friday - Jun 06, 2014 - 5:43 PM PST
Subject: Tournament of Roses 1975


I was wondering if you have a list of names of the Code talkers in the group pictures sitting in an auditorium of sorts--or the list of the men who marched in the Tournament of Roses parade in California in 1975.

I could not tell if my father, William McCabe was in the photo or not. I recall him attending. He eventually developed heart issues the ensuing year and passed away in 1976. My father was one of the founding members of the Navajo Code Talkers Association and was one of the Original 29.

Recently, my husband and I visited the Navajo Nation to view the Code Talker exhibit we had heard so much about, but to our surprise it had been dismantled. The docent told us that the Code Talker exhibit was put away in storage. However, we went to Monument Valley and they had a good exhibit there. Still it would seem the home place of such an exhibit would be at the Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock.

Thank you kindly for any information you may have.

I appreciate your time and consideration in responding.

Joy McCabe
20756 E. McCabe Road
Colorado River Indian Reservation
Parker, AZ 85344

Jacqueline Lehman Davidson, <>, Friday - Jun 06, 2014 - 10:51 AM PST
Subject: Arizona Navajo Code Talkers

My father taught English at the Phoenix Indian School. We knew Stanley Yellowhair at the School, and I would like to know the names of the other Arizona Navajos to see if we knew others. Is such a list available?

Jacqueline Lehman Davidson

Albert Perches, <>, Wednesday - May 21, 2014 - 4:26 PM PST
Subject: Michael Vernon Smith

Hey Michael!

I was stationed with you at Camp Hansen Okinawa. 9th Engr Spt Bn.

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Genevieve Johnson, <>, Wednesday - May 21, 2014 - 2:08 PM PST
Subject: Information

I need to know if Montezuma Creek, Utah is on the Reservation?

Darrell Jim, <>, Wednesday - May 14, 2014 - 1:42 PM PST
Subject: Huerfano Mnt

I've found and been to Gobernator Knob. Did my research and would like to know the pinpoint destination of the Huerfano, First Man, First Hogan. I'm ready to set the hiking day for my wife and I. I've been sent a message from the holy one's to meet this very spot. For first week of June 2014.

Christopher Beck Jr, <>, Wednesday - May 14, 2014 - 11:20 AM PST
Subject: Navajo Veterans Medal

Hello, my name is Chris Beck. I am the grandson of Benis M Frank. He was the corps chief historian for years and happen to be lucky enough to be given this medal in 82 after interviewing some of our great Navajo Code Talkers. But I was wondering if you happen to now where I can find the dress ribbon that goes with this medal we have lost over the years since he passed away. I remember him telling me some of the best time he had doing interviews with the corps was with the code talkers. If u could help me I would truly be grateful. Thank you

Shirleen, <>, Wednesday - May 07, 2014 - 9:37 AM PST
Subject: Translation

How would you say your clan for "Italian People?"

Pat Beauchamp, <>, Thursday - May 01, 2014 - 3:00 PM PST
Subject: Navajo Code Talker Tee Shirt


I work at Esperanza En Escalante, a transitional housing program for veteran and veteran families. Recently, someone donated a box of clothing, and we found a tee shirt that had a Navajo Code Talkers Association emblem on the front and a Iwo Jima Memorial on the back. There appear to be several signatures of Code Talkers as well. I’ve attached some photos of the front and back.

We are interested in knowing if this is authentic, and if so, is there any interest by the Code Talkers Association in it. We would be glad to donate if so.

I appreciate your time.

Wallace A. “Pat” Beauchamp, LCSW, MSW, M.Ed.
Director of Development
Esperanza En Escalante
(520) 271-3851




Gio, <>, Friday - Jun 28, 2013 - 3:56 PM PST
Subject: Clan Roots


I was wondering if you knew any Duenas' and if so, what clans do they belong to or are related to?

Thank you,

Charles Romero, <>, Thursday - Jun 27, 2013 - 4:46 PM PST
Subject: Jack Jones Code Talker

I see that Jack Jones Code Talker is listed as deceased but I know that he is alive and well, although pretty deaf. I have seen his Code Talker Medal given to him by the President way back several years ago.

Mr. Jone's wife did pass away but he has not, at least to date. I would love to see him get the recognition that he and his family deserve. Please let me know what I can do to help revive him.

Charles Romero 505 350 54676 or via email.

I really hope you take this seriously, he is a wonderful gentleman and I would love help.

Troy Ellison , <>, Thursday - Jun 27, 2013 - 11:37 AM PST
Subject: Navajo code talker KIA listing


I was looking through your list of code talkers, my great grand father was the late Jimmie King Sr, wondering why he is listed at KIA? He passed away in Shiprock in the mid/late 1970s. Ahehee

Michael Wellman, <>, Saturday - Jun 15, 2013 - 10:05 AM PST
Subject: Steven Deerhunter Collins

I am trying to find a friend of mine that I met in basic training named Steven Deerhunter Collins. I am Siksika Blackfoot. Please let me know how I can reach Mr. Collins. Thank you!

Robin Brown, <>, Thursday - May 30, 2013 - 9:35 AM PST
Subject: Uranium mining Mt. Taylor & Navajo folklore


I am a reporter from the NM Compass in Albuquerque(, and I'm researching a story on the proposed mine on Mt. Taylor. I would like to get comments from someone in the Navajo nation on what this might mean to the surrounding tribes, the environment, and the impacts on workers' health. I would also like more information on the Navajo folklore of Mt. Taylor as it's seen as a sacred mountain.

It seems to me that it is very likely that the Roca Honda mine will be reopened and I wonder if there is anything the Navajo nation or other concerned citizens can do to stop it.

Is there anyone I can speak to about this who knows about the folklore of Mt. Taylor or the history of uranium mining in the region? Judging from this website Harrison might be a good person to talk to.

Robin Brown

Don Soeffing, <>, Wednesday - May 29, 2013 - 6:30 AM PST
Subject: Your Navajo Timeline--Research

Dear People,

I have printed out and am reading your wonderful timeline regarding the Navajos covering the periods 1821-1847 and 1848-1868. I'm doing research on the period 1864-1868 which is neglected in your text, particularly the time during which A.B. Norton became the Superintendent of Indian Affairs 1866-1868. I was wondering whether you might be writing regarding this period at some later date. Norton was an interesting man, a graduate of Kenyon College in Ohio who, from what I have been able to gather, was sympathetic to the Navajos but died before his measures could be implemented. Because of his defense of the Navajo, I wonder if he may if he may even have met with foul play. Let me know if you would be interested in sharing further information regarding this period in the history of the Navajo Nation.

Thank you,
Don Soeffing

Fred M. Blackburn, <>, Tuesday - May 14, 2013 - 1:53 PM PST
Subject: Francisco de Hererra S.A.

I am working on the documentation of historic signatures and found recently the signature of Jose de Herrera and underneath large letters S.A. Which may mean Society of Atonement for the Franciscans.

The question now is was this an earlier Spanish Inscription or was this individual a member of Saint Michaels Mission.

Any light you can shed upon this discovery would me most appreciated.

Thank You

Fred M. Blackburn

Larry Stillman, <>, Monday - May 06, 2013 - 11:40 AM PST
Subject: A book you'll be interested in

I have enjoyed many of your web pages ever since I began researching my novel, "The Rope Catcher." It is the first and only dramatization of how the Navajo code was created and used, but that is only part of the story. In greater measure it depicts the turbulent changes that swept over Dinetah in the 1940s. My protagonist is fictional, but other major characters include Chee Dodge and Annie Wauneka. (The title comes from a Chee Dodge metaphor).

"The Rope Catcher" has been endorsed by the Navajo Code Talkers Association, and its president, Peter MacDonald Sr., says "the only other person I know who wrote this beautifully about Navajo life and culture was Tony Hillerman." I am going to donate a portion of any profits to the Navajo Code Talkers Foundation.

Since you are so active in promoting all things Navajo, I wanted you to know about my book. I know you'll find it worthwhile, and if you're interested, perhaps we could link our websites online. Check out mine at

Keep up the good work at, and I hope you'll check out "The Rope Catcher."

Best wishes,

Larry Stillman

estalpTipsRet, <>, Thursday - May 02, 2013 - 11:59 AM PST
Subject: Tuition Centre in Singapore


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Alexander Boulton, <>, Wednesday - May 01, 2013 - 2:56 PM PST
Subject: 8th Grade Navajo Project

Hello, my name is Alexander Boulton and I was wondering if I could set up a date sometime this week so I can interview you over the phone! It would be a great help. I will have about 10 questions about the Navajo Code Talkers. It would help a lot! Please message back. Thanks!


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